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Hugo’s Corner: Revitalising the Belt and Road Initiative: A Decade on

In this week’s corner, we investigate China’s ambitious global connectivity project aimed at reviving the ancient Silk Road.

From overland “Belt” routes linking China to Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia, to maritime “Road” networks reaching major ports across Asia, Africa, and Europe, the BRI invested heavily in energy and transport projects, totalling an estimated $1tn.

Despite economic successes in trade diversification, concerns have arisen over BRI’s impact—debt challenges, accusations of “debt trap diplomacy,” and environmental issues.

As China adapts with a “small and beautiful” approach, the BRI evolves, aiming to be the foundation of a more inclusive global community.


Chinese BRI Investment volume by Sector 2022

A New Direction


In a strategic move indicative of its continued global economic influence, China has embarked on a significant revitalisation of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) after a decade of its inception. This renewed commitment is marked by a noteworthy shift in emphasis towards risk reduction and a preference for smaller, more targeted projects, underscoring China’s commitment to fostering sustainable development and global cooperation. Central to this revamped approach is a substantial allocation of approximately 55.1% of BRI funds to renewable energy projects. This demonstrates China’s dedication to addressing pressing environmental concerns and aligning the initiative with the global transition towards green technologies. Over the past two years, the BRI has unveiled a series of projects with an average announced size of around $200 million, reflecting a deliberate move towards more nimble and focused initiatives. This evolution in the BRI’s modus operandi signals not only a maturation of China’s economic diplomacy but also a concerted effort to align its global infrastructure ambitions with contemporary environmental imperatives.


Mapping One Belt, One Road

Strategic And Economic Benefits


“One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) stands as a pivotal element in China’s geopolitical strategy, representing a multifaceted approach to fostering global alliances and augmenting its geopolitical influence. Envisioned as a modern Silk Road, the initiative transcends traditional economic parameters, encapsulating a vision of interconnectedness and mutual development. From 2013 to 2022, China has committed an astounding $1,960 billion in construction and investment agreements, underscoring the scale and ambition of the OBOR initiative. This colossal financial commitment serves as a testament to China’s determination to leverage economic cooperation as a means to forge diplomatic ties and consolidate its standing on the world stage.

The allure of OBOR for developing countries lies not only in the sheer magnitude of the investment but also in the flexible conditions attached to these agreements. By offering a spectrum of infrastructure opportunities, ranging from transportation networks to energy projects, China provides participating nations with the means to address critical developmental gaps. The flexibility in conditions allows for tailored arrangements, acknowledging the unique circumstances of each partner country. This nuanced approach not only facilitates the successful implementation of projects but also fosters a sense of partnership and shared benefits, positioning China as a key player in the global development landscape. As developing nations seize the infrastructure opportunities presented by OBOR, a complex web of economic and diplomatic relationships emerges, further solidifying China’s role as a central player in shaping the geopolitical landscape through strategic economic engagements.


Chinese Financial Resurgence Post COVID

Financial Resurgence Post-COVID


In the first half of 2023, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has demonstrated resilience and vitality, with construction and investment agreements reaching an impressive $40 billion. This financial commitment reflects a robust continuation of China’s ambitious infrastructure and economic development initiative despite the ongoing global challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. While this figure is noteworthy, it is important to note that it represents a cautious approach compared to the pre-pandemic levels. The geopolitical and economic landscape, reshaped by the pandemic’s impact, has prompted a recalibration of strategies. The measured increase, though substantial, signifies a conscientious evaluation of risk and a meticulous navigation of the prevailing uncertainties. The potential projection to surpass the total to $68 billion from 2022 suggests a gradual yet deliberate resurgence, indicating China’s commitment to revitalising the BRI while maintaining a prudent and adaptive stance in the face of evolving global circumstances. This cautious optimism underscores the resilience of the BRI as a pivotal tool in China’s economic diplomacy, showcasing its ability to adapt to changing conditions while continuing to propel forward a vision of interconnected development.


Sri Lanka and Zambia National Debt in relation to GDP 2013-2022

Challenges and Adjustments


Amid the tumultuous economic aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic and a concurrent rise in global interest rates, China emerged as a key player in providing financial relief to nations grappling with mounting loan repayments. Demonstrating a proactive stance, China extended billions in bailouts to various countries, offering a financial lifeline during a period of heightened economic uncertainty. However, this approach was not without its share of criticisms, particularly in instances where debt restructurings were perceived to be delayed. Nations such as Sri Lanka and Zambia faced scrutiny for the pace at which debt relief measures were implemented, sparking concerns about the implications for their economic stability.

One notable trend in this landscape was a discernible decrease in loans to African nations, marking a departure from previous patterns of heightened financial engagement. This decline underscored a nuanced shift in China’s risk assessment and a degree of skepticism surrounding the economic viability of certain projects. As the global economic terrain evolved, China’s recalibration of its financial strategies reflected a pragmatic approach to mitigate potential risks and adapt to the changing dynamics of the post-pandemic world. The critiques and adjustments in loan disbursements to African nations exemplify the delicate balancing act China faces as it navigates its role in global economic recovery, seeking to sustain diplomatic and economic ties while addressing concerns and uncertainties on both domestic and international fronts.


BRI Overview 2023

Looking Ahead


In conclusion, China’s commitment to revitalising the “One Belt, One Road” initiative, as it transitions to version 2.0, reflects a strategic evolution marked by disciplined and risk-managed future growth. The renewed focus on reigniting interest, particularly among developing economies with substantial infrastructure needs, is underscored by Beijing’s emphasis on a “small and beautiful” approach. This innovative strategy prioritises low-investment, high-yield projects that cater to the specific needs of partner countries. Examples such as bamboo and rattan-weaving programs in Liberia, biogas technology initiatives in Tonga and Samoa, and the promotion of mushroom-growing technology in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Rwanda illustrate the versatility and relevance of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in addressing diverse developmental challenges. As China pioneers this more targeted and sustainable trajectory for the BRI, it not only demonstrates adaptability in response to global economic shifts but also reinforces its commitment to fostering mutually beneficial partnerships for long-term, inclusive growth.


President Xi Jinping Quote BRI